3D Apparel Glossary



Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)

The acceptable quality level is a concept of total quality. It is described as the minimum number of faults tolerated in each sample of a manufactured product. In cases where the number of faults is higher than the AQL, the entire batch is not accepted.

In the context of digital samples in apparel, the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) refers to the level of quality that is deemed acceptable for a digital sample of a garment before it is approved for production. This would include factors such as the accuracy of the digital pattern, color matching, and overall visual appearance. If the digital sample does not meet the AQL standards, it will not be approved for production and will need to be revised.


The acceptable quality level is a concept of total quality. It is described as the minimum number of faults tolerated in each sample of a manufactured product. In cases where the number of faults is higher than the AQL, the entire batch is not accepted.

In the context of digital samples in apparel, the Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) refers to the level of quality that is deemed acceptable for a digital sample of a garment before it is approved for production. This would include factors such as the accuracy of the digital pattern, color matching, and overall visual appearance. If the digital sample does not meet the AQL standards, it will not be approved for production and will need to be revised.


In the context of 3D fashion design, animation refers to the process of creating a sequence of images, or frames, that simulate movement when played in succession. This can include the movement of clothing on a virtual model, as well as the movement of the model itself. Animation in 3D fashion design is often used to create digital runway shows or to showcase the movement and drape of a garment in a more dynamic way than a static image would allow.

VStitcher’s Animation Workspace is packed with various features and functions that allow you to experiment with the frame rate, set the animation speed, export the animation to external software applications, and more.

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Basting is a sewing technique used to temporarily hold fabric layers together. It is commonly used to hold together two or more layers of fabric while they are being sewn together. The technique is also used in fashion design to test the fit of a garment and make necessary adjustments before final construction. Basting stitches are usually long, loose stitches that can easily be removed. It is important not to pull the threads too tight when basting, as this can make it difficult to remove the stitches later.

Bill of Materials (BOM)

A detailed list of raw material components as well as instructions that are necessary for the manufacturing of a given fashion product depending on the design specifications. Usually, the BOM is drafted in a hierarchical format. The highest level displays the finished product, while the bottom level includes individual designs, materials, and components.

In the context of digital samples in apparel, a Bill of Materials (BOM) would be a detailed list of all the materials, components and instructions required to manufacture a specific fashion product based on its design specifications. This would include information such as the type and amount of fabric required, trims, hardware, and other materials needed to create the final product. Production teams would use this information to ensure that all materials and components are available and that the final product is produced according to the design specifications.


Boning is a type of stiff material, usually in the form of a thin strip of plastic or metal, that is inserted into clothing to provide structure and shape. It is commonly used in corsets, bras, and other lingerie, and can also be found in dresses and coats. 

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Circular Fashion

This is a holistic approach to designing and producing clothing, footwear and accessories that is based on the principles of the circular economy. It seeks to create a closed loop system where resources are used, reused, and recycled in an efficient manner, minimizing waste and pollution. It includes the use of sustainable materials and practices, such as organic cotton, recycled polyester, and low-impact dyes. It also includes designing for longevity, repairability, recyclability, and rental. Additionally, circular fashion promotes the use of closed-loop business models, such as take-back and recycling programs, and circular product-service systems. The goal of circular fashion is to create a sustainable and regenerative fashion industry that operates in harmony with natural systems. 


Colorway defines the different and unique color combinations a designer uses in the same design. For each of these, the production needs to develop a color grid to keep an eye on the colorways the buyer is offering for the garment. This enables the manufacturer to understand precisely how the buyer wants the garments to look in production.

In 3D apparel design, colorways refer to the ability to create and manage different color variations of a product within the same virtual sample. This allows designers to see how a product would look in different color options and make changes without creating a new virtual sample for each colorway. 3D apparel design software, such as VStitcher, includes a Colorways workspace that provides tools for color manipulation, such as color swatches, color libraries and the ability to apply different color effects to different areas of the product. This feature can save time and resources by reducing the need to produce physical samples in multiple colors and allows for a more efficient design process.

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Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

CAD is a computer-aided design technology that enables fashion designers to create and develop designs and patterns on a computer. It helps them visualize their ideas and create patterns on a computer screen that can be printed or used to make garments. CAD can be used to create garments from scratch, or to modify existing patterns. CAD also allows for the creation of 3D models, which can be used to produce garments with a more realistic look. With CAD, designers can quickly make changes to a design, and make sure that it fits the desired shape and size. 

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Critical, Major, and Minor Defects

Products can have defects that vary in nature. Critical defects are significant faults that can deem the product unsafe or unusable. Major defects are faults likely to result in unit failure to meet the intended purpose. A minor defect is a deviation from the expected standard, but it does not significantly impact product usability.

CMT – Cut Make Trim

Cut – Cutting of garment patterns from fabric role.

Make – stitching the complete garment with necessary trims.

Trim – trimming of uncut threads tails, cleaning loose thread from the garment after stitching, and doing the checking, finishing, and packing of the garment CMT contractors are firms contracted to cut, make and trim a product from fabric, findings, and cutting marker. It is one of the elements in garment costing as well.

In Cut Make Trim manufacturing, the manufacturer cuts the fabric and makes the clothes according to the design. The client provides the raw materials and the product designs. CMT manufacturers work with many businesses, from small-scale buyers to major designer brands. In some cases, CMT manufacturers offer items such as boxes and hangers.

CNS – Cut and Sewn, (knitted categories)

CNS, or Cut and Sewn, refers to creating garments using pre-made individual panel shapes that are then sewn together with special stitching patterns to create the final clothing item. This method of garment construction is commonly used for knitted categories such as sweaters, t-shirts, and other knitwear.

In the context of 3D apparel design, CNS would refer to the ability to create virtual samples of garments using pre-made panel shapes that can be assembled and sewn together in a virtual environment. This allows designers to see how the final product will look and make changes before creating physical samples. The 3D apparel design software allows to the creation of a wide range of knitwear and other categories that can be assembled in different ways.

Using 3D design software with CNS capabilities, designers can create and manipulate virtual samples more easily and accurately, without the need for physical prototypes, saving time and cost and allowing for a more efficient design process.


Development Sample

Development samples in apparel are physical prototypes of a garment created during the design and development process. They are used to test a product’s fit, quality, and functionality before it is sent into full production. These samples are typically made using the final fabrics, trims, and other materials used in the final product. They are used to check the pattern, construction details, fit, measurements and overall appearance. They are a critical step in the apparel production process, as they ensure that the final product will meet both the designer’s and the customer’s standards and help identify and correct any issues before mass production begins.

In 3D apparel design, development samples are virtual garment prototypes created using specialized software to simulate the physical product. They are used to test a product’s fit, quality, and functionality before it is sent into full production. By using 3D apparel design software, designers and product developers can create virtual development samples that accurately represent the final product and can be used to make adjustments and corrections before physical samples are created. This can save time and resources and allow a more efficient design and development process.


Digitalization in the fashion industry refers to the use of technology to enhance various aspects of the fashion business, such as product development, design, production, distribution, marketing, and sales. This can include things like using computer-aided design (CAD) software to create clothing patterns, using 3D modeling to create virtual product displays, using social media and e-commerce platforms to market and sell clothing, and using data analytics to track sales and consumer behavior. Overall, digitalization is helping the fashion industry to become more efficient, sustainable, and responsive to consumer preferences. 

Digital Apparel Workflow

A digital apparel workflow refers to the process of creating, designing, and producing clothing using digital tools and technologies. This can include using computer-aided design (CAD) software to create patterns and designs, 3D modeling to create virtual prototypes of garments, and digital printing to produce the final product. Other steps in the workflow may include sourcing materials, creating technical specifications, and managing production and distribution. Overall, a digital apparel workflow streamlines the design and production process, allowing for more efficient and cost-effective clothing production.

Digital Fashion

Digital fashion refers to the use of digital technology in the design, production, and presentation of fashion items such as clothing, accessories, and footwear. This can include using computer-aided design (CAD) software to create designs, 3D modeling to create virtual clothing, and virtual reality and augmented reality to present and try on clothing in a digital environment. It also refers to the use of digital platforms such as social media and e-commerce websites to market and sell fashion items. 

Digital Transformation

The integration of digital technology into all areas of a business, fundamentally changing how businesses operate and deliver value to customers. It involves the use of technology such as automation, data analysis, and digital communication to streamline processes, improve customer experiences, and drive growth. The goal of digital transformation is to create a more efficient, agile, and innovative organization. 

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Digital Twin

A digital twin refers to a digital replica or representation of a physical garment. The digital twin can be created using various technologies such as 3D scanning, computer-aided design (CAD), and photogrammetry. The digital twin can be used for various purposes such as virtual try-on, virtual styling, product visualization, simulations of the garment’s behaviors in different environments, or for virtual prototyping. It can also be used to store information about the physical garment such as design and production data, size, and color. This information can be used to improve the design process, streamline production, and enhance the customer experience. 


This is the final process in the manufacturing unit wherein the garments are generally packed in cartons with the dimensions specified by the buyer and shipped to the buyer. The product is dispatched once the factors of right merchandise, at the right time, in right quantity, and at the right price is fulfilled. The processes that usually are done as a part of dispatch are final audit, preparation of AOD (advice of dispatch), update dispatch quantity, load in the vehicle, and release for dispatch.

DPC: Digital Product Creation

DPC in fashion is the process of designing, developing, and producing fashion items through digital technology. This includes tools such as 3D modeling, 3D printing, and computer-aided design (CAD) software to create patterns and technical drawings, 3D modeling and rendering to visualize designs, and digital textile printing to create prototypes and final products. DPC can also involve the use of digital tools to streamline and optimize the product development process, such as virtual prototyping and simulation. This method can increase the speed of product development, reduce the need for physical samples, and enable more efficient communication and collaboration among team members. 

Dry processing

The process of finishing a garment without the use of water or steam. It often involves pressing, dyeing, and other methods to achieve the desired look. Dry processing can be used to create a variety of effects, including fading, creasing, and other specialty finishes.

Dyed-to-Match (DTM)

This phrase is most used for specifying that a trim is to match the base fabric color rather than any color code Pantone card. In the product specification sheet, when the trim’s color is mentioned as DTM, it needs to made clear that the manufacturer must match the color based on the garment’s base fabric color. Trims (such as thread, buttons, laces, zippers, etc.) may be dyed to match the color and shade of the fabric of the garment.


End-to-End Workflow

The term “end to end workflow” as it relates to digital fashion refers to the process of creating a fashion product from start to finish, using digital tools and technologies throughout the entire process. This can include everything from research and design to pattern making, grading, prototyping, and even production. 

An end-to-end workflow in digital fashion can include various digital tools, such as computer-aided design (CAD) software, 3D modeling and rendering, digital textile printing, and virtual prototyping. The goal of this workflow is to streamline the product development process, and make it more efficient, accurate, and sustainable. By using digital tools, the process can be faster and more precise, with less waste and errors. Additionally, it allows for better collaboration, communication and more flexibility throughout the development process.

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Engineering print

Large-scale technical drawings of pattern pieces used in the production process. They are usually printed on blueprint paper and feature detailed instructions for construction. They indicate the design’s measurements and construction details, such as the number and placement of seams, darts, pockets, and so on.


Final Production

Once bulk production is started, a few garment pieces are taken out in the middle of the process. Production pieces are sent to the buyer as the Top of Production (TOP) sample. Buyers do not ask for the TOP sample. The purpose of the TOP sample is to cross-check whether the factory is following the PP sample specification or not.

Fit Sample

Once the initial sample is approved, the fit sample is made with the actual measurements. The pattern is modified to get the desired fit of the garment. Fit is one of the most important factors to be considered during sample development. A Fit sample is being tested on a live model or on a Dress form to verify garment fit and fall, and usually made in sample size (38 EU for women)


Filling is material that is utilized to fill an item, such as down, feathers, wool, synthetic fibers, cotton, and polyester. It involves a process of adding the material to a garment to give it shape, structure, and volume. This is commonly done to coats, jackets, and other garments to give them a fuller, more structured look. It can also be used to add warmth to the garment or to give it a more comfortable fit.

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Foil print

A type of printing process used in fashion design where a metallic or pigmented foil is applied to a garment to create a decorative and reflective effect. It is typically used in creating custom designs and logos on garments.

The Substance by Adobe presets allow you to apply effects to your artwork when working in VStitcher, and include a preset for foil print for design customization.

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Fabric Rendering 

Fabric Rendering is the process of creating a highly realistic digital representation of fabric within 3D apparel software. It focuses on accurately portraying the fabric's texture, color, pattern, and physical properties, such as drape, sheen, and thickness. 

A fabric rendering tool is pivotal in the design and pre-production stages of apparel creation. It allows designers to visualize the final product realistically without needing physical samples, reducing time and material waste. It also facilitates clearer communication among designers, manufacturers, and clients by providing a lifelike garment representation.

Advanced 3D modeling tools, such as Browzwear's VStitcher, are at the forefront of fabric rendering. These tools simulate fabric properties and behaviors, incorporating complex variables like texture mapping, fabric weight, and light interaction to produce authentic and dynamic representations. Integrally, Browzwear FAB, the fabric analytics tool, plays a critical role by providing accurate fabric measurements and properties. This data ensures that the digital fabric behaves and appears as it would in the physical world, enhancing the realism of fabric rendering.

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GLTF is an open standard file format for 3D scenes developed by the Khronos Group. It is fast, compact, and easily used in various applications, making it ideal for sharing 3D models across different platforms. It is commonly used in gaming, virtual reality, and augmented reality.

When working with Browzwear's 3D apparel software, GLTF brings many advantages:

  • Efficient Workflow: GLTF enables efficient sharing and collaboration on complex 3D garment models without sacrificing detail or quality.
  • GLTF's cross-platform compatibility allows easy integration and use of 3D models created in apparel design software, making it beneficial for showcasing designs in various environments.
  • Realistic Rendering: GLTF accurately represents complex textures, fabrics, and patterns, ensuring highly realistic rendering of garments.
  • GLTF supports animations, allowing designers and buyers to accurately simulate how garments move and behave, providing a realistic representation of their appearance.

GLTF's efficiency, compatibility, and support for detailed, realistic rendering make it a valuable format for 3D apparel software like Browzwear. It helps streamline the design process, facilitates easier sharing and collaboration, and contributes to creating more accurate and lifelike representations of garments in digital form.

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Grading refers to the process of creating different sizes of a garment pattern. This is typically done by increasing or decreasing certain measurements of the pattern, such as the bust or waistline, to create larger or smaller versions of the same design. Grading is essential in the apparel industry as it allows clothing manufacturers to create a range of sizes to fit a variety of body types. The process involves grading rules, a set of standardized measurements that dictate how much a pattern should be enlarged or reduced to create a larger or smaller size.

Grading can be done in Vstitcher without any need of external software for pattern makers – by starting from the base size garment and when you are satisfied with the base garment, you grade the pattern for whatever range of sizes you need.

For example, you might decide that your base size is medium, and you want small and extra small sizes (smaller than the base size), and you also want large and extra large (bigger than the base size).

In VStitcher, you can grade visually or manually, using grade points.

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Grain Line

A grain line refers to the direction of the fabric fibers in a garment or textile. It is often used as a reference point when designing and constructing clothing, as it can affect the drape and fit of the finished product. The grain line is typically parallel to the selvage (the finished edge of a fabric) or the lengthwise grain (the direction of the fibers that run the longest in the fabric). It is important to align the grain line correctly when cutting and sewing fabric to ensure that the finished garment hangs correctly and has the desired fit.

In VStitcher, you can rotate a grain line perpendicular to an edge, shaving hours of manual tasks off your workflow.

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A type of fabric treatment that involves abrading or wearing down the surface of the denim fabric. This can create a distressed look with a unique texture and colour. Grinding is often used to create a more vintage look on denim garments, as well as to give more definition to the fabric’s shape.



In apparel creation, a hem is the edge of a piece of clothing that has been doubled back and stitched down. It is usually done to prevent the material from fraying and to create a neat, finished look. 

A hem can be done by hand or with a sewing machine, depending on the material and complexity of the hem. Hemming can be done on skirts, pants, shirts, jackets, dresses, and other clothing items. Hemming usually involves folding the edge of the fabric over twice and stitching it down with a straight stitch, using a thread that matches the fabric’s color.  

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Hook and Eye Closure

A hook and eye closure is a fastener consisting of two parts, a hook and an eye, usually made of metal, plastic, or sometimes cloth, which are sewn into clothing and other textiles to hold them together. The hook is inserted into the eye and then twisted or pulled to fasten items securely. They are commonly used for bras, corsets, skirts, dresses, and other garments but can also be used for jewelry, purses, and other accessories. They are often used as an alternative to buttons and zippers and are easy to use, although they may not be as secure.

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Interfacing is a type of fabric used in clothing construction to provide extra support and stability to certain areas of the garment. It is usually made from a fusible material such as polyester, cotton, or rayon, and is bonded to the garment through heat or steam. Interfacing helps garments retain their shape, provides structure and support, and prevents wrinkling.

Interfacing is usually applied to collars, cuffs, and facings of jackets, blouses, and dresses, as well as to the underarm and center back areas of tailored garments. It can also be used to reinforce pockets, give a crisp shape to necklines, and provide added stability to seams and hemlines. Different types of interfacing are available, including fusible, sewin, and knit, and the type used depends on the fabric, project, and desired end result. When applying interfacing, it is important to use the correct side of the interfacing and press it in place with the appropriate temperature, pressure, and steam.



Jacquard is a type of fabric known for its intricate and elaborate patterns, which are made by a special loom that can weave complex patterns into the fabric. Jacquard fabrics are often used to make clothing, curtains, and other decorative items. Jacquard fabrics are created by weaving differently colored threads together in a pattern. The threads can be made of many different materials, including silk, cotton, and wool. The patterns are created by a special loom, which uses punched cards to control the pattern of the weave. This allows for a much more intricate and complex pattern than would be possible with a traditional loom.



A kimono is a traditional Japanese garment consisting of a long, full-length robe with wide, flowing sleeves. It is usually made of a lightweight fabric such as silk or cotton and is typically worn with a sash called an obi. Kimono are often decorated with elaborate designs and patterns, and are often worn for special occasions such as weddings or festivals. A kimono is constructed from several different panels of fabric that are sewn together. The fabric is usually cut on the bias to create a draping effect. The panels are then sewn together using a traditional method known as hakata-ori, which involves sewing the panels together using a series of small, straight stitches. Once the panels are sewn together, the kimono is lined and the sleeves are attached. The obi is then tied around the waist to complete the look.


Lab Dip

A lab dip is a process used in the textile and fashion industry to test the color of a fabric or garment before mass production. It is a small sample of the fabric dyed or printed with the desired color and then checked for accuracy and consistency.

In 3D fashion design, lab dips can be used to test and iterate on the colors of virtual garments before they are produced in real life. By simulating the lab dip process in 3D design software, designers can quickly and easily experiment with different color options and make adjustments without having to dye or print samples physically.

This can also be faster, more efficient, and less costly than traditional lab dips, as 3D simulations can be performed quickly and easily, and allows designers to make changes and see the results immediately. Additionally, it allows designers to create more accurate and consistent colors, as they can be precisely controlled in the digital environment.


Lycra is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is often used in the production of clothing, swimwear, and underwear and is widely recognized for its ability to stretch up to five times its original size. The fabric is lightweight and breathable, making it suitable for all types of weather. It is also resistant to chlorine, salt water, and UV rays, making it an ideal choice for swimwear and activewear. Lycra is also resistant to wrinkles and shrinking and is often used in the production of spandex and other stretch fabrics.

With Browzwear’s recent partnership with The Lycra Company, users can now access a variety of LYCRA and COOLMAX brand fibers, which have been created to reduce waste and keep materials in use longer. With over 200 spandex fibers available in the VStitcher Asset Library, each fabric has its own unique quantities of spandex in each garment that results in enhanced clothing performance and ensures the ultimate fit.

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Minimum Order Quantity (MOQ)

Stands for Minimum Order Quantity and is used by factories and suppliers throughout the industry as a limit for how small a production order can be.


A physical or digital representation of a design or garment that is used for fitting and styling purposes. Mock-ups that are created digitally allow designers to create virtual prototypes of their garments and make changes easily without having to create physical samples. These digital mock-ups can be used to create technical drawings, which provide detailed information about the garment’s construction and can be used to communicate with production teams.

3D Modeling

3D modeling for apparel is the process of creating a virtual representation of a garment or clothing item that can be manipulated in a 3D environment. This technique can be used to create realistic visuals of apparel designs, allowing designers to experiment with various design ideas before committing to a final product. 3D modeling also provides a way to quickly create prototypes and samples of apparel items, allowing designers to test out different materials and fabrics in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. 


Mixamo is a web-based 3D character animation platform that allows users to create and customize 3D character animations quickly and easily. The platform provides a library of pre-made 3D characters and animations, as well as tools for customizing and creating new animations from scratch. Mixamo can be used for a variety of purposes, including video game development, film and animation production, and 3D apparel design.

In the context of 3D apparel design, Mixamo can be used to create animations of 3D garment designs, such as animations of a model walking or moving in a particular way while wearing the garment. By using Mixamo, designers can easily create realistic and dynamic animations of their 3D garment designs, helping them to better visualize the fit and movement of the garment. Mixamo animations can also be exported and used in other 3D apparel software programs, such as VStitcher, to create realistic and accurate 3D garment simulations.



A notch is a cut at an angle or a notch in the fabric that creates a visible fold or line. It is often used to create a tailored look or to make a garment fit better. Notches are commonly used in garments’ neckline, shoulders, and sides. Notches are also used to add decoration or interest to a garment, as well as to create a unique style. Notches can be used in a variety of ways, such as creating pleats, slits, or other decorative touches. They can also be used to create a more fitted look, or to add structure to a garment. Notches can be added to any fabric, and can be used to create a variety of different styles. The size and shape of the notch will depend on the desired look and style. The notch can then be sewn into the fabric or left as-is.

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Neck Tape

Neck tape, a fabric strip commonly found on the inside of shirt necklines, serves multiple purposes in garment construction. Not only does it provide a clean and polished look by covering seams, but it also offers reinforcement to preserve the neckline's shape and prevent any unwanted stretching. This attention to detail enhances the garment's durability and comfort, minimizing any potential irritation from exposed seams.

When it comes to creating realistic neck tape in VStitcher, designers have various methods that accurately align with their desired visual outcome.

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An OBJ file is a standard 3D image format that can be exported and opened by various 3D image editing programs. It is used to store and define the geometry of a 3D model, such as its shape and surface features, in a text-based format.

OBJ files are used for a wide range of applications, from 3D printing to computer-aided design (CAD) to rapid prototyping. They store information about a 3D object’s geometry, including points, edges, and faces, as well as texture coordinates, surface normals, and materials. OBJ files also contain metadata such as color, reflectance, and illumination information. They are commonly used to share 3D models between different 3D programs and can be used to convert 3D models between different formats.

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Open Platform

Browzwear's Open Platform is a transformative initiative designed to digitize the apparel workflow by integrating various digital solutions. It serves as a bridge that connects technology providers with Browzwear's products, enabling the creation of seamless workflows through plugins or server automation. This integration spans various stages of apparel production, from design and development to merchandising, promising faster delivery, heightened customer satisfaction, and improved sustainability.

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The concept of 'Opacity' plays a crucial role in fabric simulation and visualization. Opacity determines the translucency or transparency of the material, directly influencing how light interacts with the fabric and, consequently, the visual perception of the garment's layers. This parameter is essential when designers aim to replicate the real-life behavior of light through various fabrics, from sheer chiffons to opaque cotton. Mastery of opacity settings allows designers to achieve high realism in their digital prototypes, effectively showcasing how underlayers might peek through a garment or ensuring privacy where needed. This control over light and visibility is not just about aesthetics. Still, it is also practical, providing insights into how a garment looks and functions in different lighting conditions and layering scenarios.


Padding / Puffy

Padding can be used to enhance or create certain features, such as a padded shoulder on a jacket or padded hips on pants, to create a more defined and structured silhouette. Puffy clothing, also known as “quilted” or “padded” clothing, refers to clothes that are designed to have an exaggerated and voluminous silhouette, usually achieved through the use of padding, which makes the clothing appears to be swollen or puffed up.

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Parametric Avatar

Parametric avatars can be adjusted in size, posture, and form and used to create models for fitting, designing, and merchandising, such as graded garments. They can be fine-tuned for a realistic look allowing designers to visualize how a garment will fit and drape on a human body before it is physically produced. This can help to streamline the design process, reduce waste, and improve the fit of the end product. It can also be used in virtual try-on, virtual fitting rooms, and other applications in the fashion industry.

Browzwear’s avatars are fully parametric, enabling you to adjust measurements according to your specific needs seamlessly, experiment with various poses, and create engaging animations. 

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Photorealistic quality refers to the ability of a digital representation of a garment or clothing item to accurately and realistically depict the textures, colors, patterns, and other details of the actual garment. This can include aspects like the texture of the fabric, the way light reflects off the surface of the garment, the draping and movement of the fabric, and the way the garment fits on a human body. Photorealistic renderings of fashion designs can be used by designers to present their ideas to clients or manufacturers, or to create virtual fashion shows or other marketing materials. 


A process of dyeing fabric or garments after they have been cut and sewn into their final shape.

Proto Sample

This is the first sample in the product development stage. Proto samples are made to communicate the design of a style or a line or to present garment structure. In proto samples, fit and fabric detailing is not considered.


A full-size working model of a new product or new version of an existing product that is used as a basis for later production stages.

3D fashion design solutions like VStitcher eliminate the need for physical prototypes in favor of digital prototypes.

A digital prototype is a 3D model of a garment or accessory that has been designed and constructed using specialized software. This model is used to visualize the look and feel of a potential product, check the fit, and experiment with colors, shapes, and design elements. Prototyping can help designers test out their ideas and determine whether a product is viable, saving them time and money.

Pattern Making 

Pattern Making is a fundamental aspect of garment design, reimagined for the digital realm in Browzwear's 3D apparel solutions. It involves the meticulous craft of designing and assembling the flat pieces, known as patterns, which serve as the blueprint for constructing a three-dimensional garment. In Browzwear, this process is digitized, allowing designers to create, adjust, and manipulate patterns in a virtual environment.

Designers can translate their creative visions into precise digital patterns with intuitive tools and realistic fabric simulations. These patterns not only define the shape and fit of the garment but also allow for immediate visualization and iteration in 3D space. This digital approach streamlines the design process, promotes sustainable practices by reducing physical sampling, and enables a seamless transition from concept to production-ready designs.

In Browzwear's ecosystem, Pattern Making is more than just a step in garment creation; precision meets creativity, paving the way for innovative designs and efficient workflows in the fashion industry


Quality Assurance (QA)

The quality assurance process is a quality management technique that guarantees that quality requirements have been fulfilled. Quality assurance provides confidence and can be defined as the collection of the planned and systematic activities that are implemented to demonstrate that a given product or service has fulfilled a certain quality threshold.

Quality Control (QC)

Quality control is a process through which a company ensures that product quality is consistent. The process revolves around testing product units to determine if they fall within the final product specifications. An organization’s quality control process depends on the industry or product standards and the techniques that exist for assessing quality.


Raw edge

The unfinished or unprocessed edge of a garment or fabric. It is a finish that intentionally leaves the edge of a fabric or garment frayed, ragged or unfinished. It is not hemmed or otherwise treated to prevent unraveling.


3D rendering is a computer-generated process that creates three-dimensional images of clothing, allowing them to be viewed from any angle and manipulated in a virtual environment. It allows designers to create and visualize garments in a photorealistic manner before committing to the physical production process. 

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Rigging is an integral part of the 3D animation process. It involves creating a digital skeleton for the 3D model, like a puppet, so that it can move and pose. This skeleton is made up of a series of interconnected joints and controls, which are used to shape the model’s movement. The controls are often associated with specific body parts, such as arms, legs, and head, allowing animators to move them in a realistic and lifelike manner. Rigging is often used in conjunction with other animation techniques, such as keyframing and motion capture, to make the animation come alive. 

Rubber print

A printing technique that uses rubber as a stencil to apply designs or patterns onto fabric. This technique is also known as “silicone printing” or “elastomeric printing.” The process starts by creating a stencil out of rubber, which is then pressed onto the fabric. Ink is then rolled over the stencil, transferring the design onto the fabric. Rubber printing is commonly used in the production of t-shirts, hoodies, and other casual clothing, but it can also be used on other types of fabrics like silk, cotton, and polyester to achieve a bold and unique design.



Salesman Sample (SMS)

Salesman samples are displayed in retail showrooms to gain customer feedback, and according to the customer’s response, buyers can forecast the demand for a particular style. Sales samples are made with actual fabric and trims and accessories. The brand pays for salesman samples to the manufacturer. These also help decide which styles of colors to cut from the collection.

3D Scanning

3D scanning is a technology that captures a full 3D image of an individual’s body. It is used to create 3D avatars of customers, which can then be used to create custom-fit clothes. 3D scanning can also be used to create virtual fashion shows and to create virtual clothes that can be tried on virtually. Additionally, it can be used to create 3D models of fashion products, allowing customers to virtually try on clothes before purchasing them. 


Shipment Sample

Once the style is being finalized and packed for shipment, 2-3 complete pieces with all packing details are kept for future reference. The shipment sample is kept by factory merchants and buyer’s merchants. The approved shipment is sent directly to the warehouse and merchants at the buyer do not get garment out of the shipment. That is why they keep shipment samples for future reference.

Shortages and Overages

Shortages and overages occur due to minor fluctuations that occur in a high-volume packaging environment. Shortages and overages are common in the manufacturing industry due to the ongoing production and packaging of thousands of products.



The decrease in size or dimension of a garment or fabric when exposed to certain conditions, such as heat, water, or chemicals. Shrinkage can also refer to the process of intentionally shrinking a garment or fabric to achieve a specific aesthetic or fit, this process is known as “felting” in wool, or “shrink-to-fit” in denim.

Size Set Sample

The purpose of size sets is to validate the fit of the garment in different sizes. In this stage, the factory develops samples in multiple sizes. Generally, buyers ask for size set samples in jump sizes, like S, L, XXL. The buyer verifies the size set sample and gives feedback to the factory if any changes are required.


Strike Off

A sample of a printed fabric or garment that is used to check the color, design, and quality of the final product before it is produced in bulk. In digital product creation, a strike-off can be a digital proof of the design. It is an important step in the production process, as it allows the space to make any necessary adjustments before the final production run.

Sustainable Fashion

Sustainable fashion refers to the design, production, and consumption of clothing and accessories that have a minimal negative impact on the environment and society. This can include using eco-friendly materials, implementing ethical manufacturing practices, and promoting circular fashion concepts such as rental and resale models. Digital fashion and apparel specifically refer to the use of technology, such as 3D modeling and virtual try-on, in the fashion industry. 

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In VStitcher, the 'Snapshot' feature refers to saving a simulated state of a garment. After simulation, the software automatically generates a snapshot, serving as a reference to quickly access previously simulated garments. You can create both automatic (overwriting previous ones for the same avatar) and manual snapshots (not overwritten but capturing only the drape). Manual snapshots can be named for easy identification. Snapshots are useful for transitioning between avatars, saving garment adjustments, and reducing the need for re-simulation for minor changes​​.

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Substance by Adobe

Substance by Adobe is revolutionizing the 3D apparel design industry, offering a suite of tools to create ultrarealistic fabric textures and garment details. Its integration with key industry software like VStitcher by Browzwear allows designers to generate lifelike visualizations of cloth drapes and textures, enhancing the creative process from concept to final product. The procedural nature of Substance's materials enables endless customization, allowing designers to experiment and visualize variations with high fidelity. This technology not only boosts creativity and production speed but also supports sustainability by reducing the reliance on physical samples.​

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Technical Illustration

Technical illustrations are drawings that accurately depict the details of clothing designs in order to communicate the design to manufacturers, pattern makers, and other technical personnel. Technical illustrations are often used to show the construction of a garment, the fit of a garment on a body, the size of the garment, and any other details necessary to construct the garment. Technical illustrations are often used in combination with other information such as fabric swatches, fabric weights, measurements, and instructions to create a complete set of instructions for the garment. 

Tech Pack (TP)

A tech pack is a document that designers use to inform the manufacturer of the components required in the construction of a particular garment. The tech pack includes all the technical specifications and details such as materials, measurements, colors, trim, tags, labels, grading, etc. All the crucial and technical aspects of the product design must be described in detail in the tech pack.

VStitcher’s tech pack feature allows you to generate a technical package for production, including all specifications, materials, and patterns being used on the current 3D project. You can save standard tech pack settings for repeat use.

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Textile Simulation

Textile simulation is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) technique that simulates the behavior of fabrics and other materials used in the textile industry. It is used to analyze the physical properties of fabrics, such as strain, stress, and deformation, in order to improve the design process and reduce costs associated with prototyping and manufacturing. Textile simulation can also be used to optimize production processes, such as weaving or knitting, to reduce time and material wastage. 


Tolerance explains why no two garments of similar size are guaranteed identical; it can be a plus or minus measurement. It is the measurement that is primarily used to ascertain whether a product fulfills a given quality standard. For instance, two medium sizes of the same shirt can have a slightly different fit but still fall within the acceptable range of mediums.

Top of Production Sample (TOP sample)

Once bulk production is started, a few garment pieces are taken out in the middle of the process. Production pieces are sent to the buyer as the T.O.P sample. Buyers do not ask for the TOP sample. The purpose of the TOP sample is to cross-check whether the factory is following the PP sample specification or not.


UV Mapping

UV mapping in apparel design is a process of mapping a two-dimensional image onto a three-dimensional garment in order to create a realistic-looking representation of the garment. This is done by using a computer program such as Photoshop or 3D fashion design software to create a virtual map of the garment. The program will then allow the user to manipulate the image in order to create the desired effect. This technique is used to create unique patterns and designs, or to create a realistic texture and appearance. UV mapping can also be used to create a realistic-looking garment from a flat pattern.


U3M (unified 3D material) is an open-source file format for materials, developed by Browzwear and Vizoo, including physical properties data and texture image maps in a single file. The file format includes a textures folder, U3M core file, a physics .json file (calculated physics data from the FAB) and a file image. In VSitcher you can export all materials in the U3M file format. When doing so, a Unified 3D Material Archived (U3MA) file is created: a compressed (zipped) file containing all the parts of the U3M format.

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Virtual Fitting

Virtual fitting during the garment design process is a technique that uses computer-aided design (CAD) software to create a 3D simulation of how a garment will fit on a person. This simulation can be used to evaluate the fit, comfort, aesthetics, and other aspects of a garment before it is produced. The simulation allows designers to make design changes quickly and easily to ensure that the garment meets their design requirements.

Virtual fitting can be used to test the fit of a variety of garments, including trousers, shirts, jackets, and dresses. It can also be used to assess the fit of different body types, such as tall, petite, plus-size, and curvy. By utilizing virtual fitting during the garment design process, designers can save time, reduce costs, and ensure that their garments are of the highest quality.


VStitcher is a popular 3D fashion design software that creates accurate and realistic garment simulations, helping designers visualize and style garments in 3D. It supports the entire design lifecycle, reducing the need for physical samples and promoting sustainability and efficiency in the apparel industry.

VStitcher's true-to-life 3D garment simulations streamline the design process, aligning digital designs with production requirements and offering cost savings by repurposing digital samples for sales and e-commerce photography. VStitcher plays a pivotal role in modernizing and economizing the apparel creation process.

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Waste or wastage refers to the amount of materials, fabrics, or garments that are discarded or not used during the production process. This can occur for a variety of reasons, such as overproduction, design changes, poor planning, or defects in the materials or finished products. Wastage not only represents an economic loss but also has an environmental impact.

Water print

Water printing or water transfer printing is a method of applying designs or patterns to a garment or accessory using a specialized printing process that uses water as the transfer medium.


The creases or wrinkles that naturally occur on denim garments, particularly around the thighs and knees, as a result of wear and movement. They are often considered a desirable feature in denim, as they give the garment a lived-in, vintage look and can be found in different types of garments. The process of creating whiskers on denim is known as “whiskering” and is often done using sandpaper or a wire brush to create a worn and faded appearance.



The measurement of fabric in terms of length and width, typically measured in yards or meters. It is used in the fashion industry to specify the quantity of fabric needed for each garment in a collection, it affects the overall cost and design of the final product and it is also used to specify the amount of fabric in a roll or bolt in a fabric store.


The process of dyeing the individual yarns that make up a fabric before they are woven or knit into a fabric. This technique is also used to create subtle color variations and textures in the fabric and can create intricate designs with multiple colors. It can be applied to a wide range of fibers and materials, including cotton, wool, silk, and synthetic fibers like polyester.


Zipper slider

The small piece attaches to the zipper teeth and is used to open and close the zipper, allowing the user to move the slider along the teeth. The different types of zipper sliders include standard sliders, locking sliders, and reversible sliders and they come in different shapes, colors, and designs.

Within VStitcher, designers can add and adjust zipper sliders to create accurate and realistic 3D garment designs that feature functional zippers. The software allows designers to experiment with different zipper configurations, positions, and designs to ensure that the final garment design is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. By using 3D zipper sliders within VStitcher, designers can create 3D garment designs that accurately represent the final product, reducing the need for costly physical samples and accelerating the design and production process.

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The Z-axis is one of the three primary axes used in 3D modeling and design, and it represents depth or height. In the context of 3D apparel, the Z-axis can be used to represent the thickness or depth of a garment or accessory, as well as the positioning of different layers or elements within the design. Understanding the Z-axis is important for creating realistic and accurate 3D apparel designs that take into account the thickness and structure of the materials being used.

In 3D apparel software such as VStitcher, the Z-axis is an important component in the 3D modeling process. The program uses the Z-axis to represent the depth or thickness of a garment design. This allows designers to create and manipulate 3D garment designs that accurately represent the real-world thickness and structure of the materials being used.

For example, in VStitcher, designers can use the Z-axis to add depth and dimension to a garment design by adding layers of material or manipulating the thickness of existing layers. They can also use the Z-axis to position different design elements within the garment, such as pockets, zippers, or buttons, in a way that accurately reflects their real-world positioning.

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